Skin diseases in pets are far from uncommon. Regardless of the causes of their occurrence, these pathologies are very dangerous, since they often lead to serious depletion of the animal, a decrease in its immunity, and the appearance becomes - even in horror films shoot. It is necessary to add to this the duration of treatment (up to six months and longer) and its cost ... In general, you already understand that dermatitis in dogs is a serious sore, which should be taken with all possible responsibility. And in order not to get confused, it is important to learn about this disease as much as possible!
What it is?
In general, dermatitis is called skin inflammation. More precisely, all its layers. There are many types of dermatitis, for which the main symptoms are common: redness, swelling of the skin, as well as the formation of scabs, erosion or blisters on its surface.
Veterinary medicine has “adopted” the basic classification among physicians. So, it includes the following varieties of the disease:
- Mechanical dermatitis.
- Contact type inflammation.
- Near-dermatitis dermatitis (often moist, with a large amount of exudate).
- Drug inflammation, skin irritation.
- Thermal damage to the skin.
- Dermatitis of parasitic origin.
- Infectious and fungal.
But this is just the tip of the iceberg. In fact, there are much more varieties of dermatitis, and we will try to tell about them as part of this article.
There are a lot of them. First, nutrition plays a huge role in both the development and the prevention of these pathologies. It should be balanced in vitamins, trace elements and nutrients. This is ideal, of course. In practice, this can only be achieved if the diet is prepared by a competent specialist, or when using special feeds intended for your breed, the manufacturer of which created food for young, old, lactating, active ... in a word, for all types of dogs. Of great importance are the conditions of detention. If the dog is constantly dirty, groomed, with hair piled and glued from dirt, then one should not be surprised at the "suddenly" arisen skin inflammation, which is likely stomped by a myriad of ticks and fleas. In a word, there can be many reasons. Let's talk about specific species.
MechanicalClick to view in a new window. Attention, the photo contains images of sick animals!
One of the most common and, to some extent, "harmless" varieties of skin inflammation. It develops after strong mechanical influences: bruises, abrasions, other skin lesions. In a word, any more or less serious injury may well lead to the development of the inflammatory process. It must be said that mechanical dermatitis is also often of parasitic origin. When fleas or ticks constantly bite and irritate the skin, the dog begins to itch intensively. Sometimes it comes to deep cracks, tears and wounds (in the photo this is very noticeable). Accordingly, the signs of this type of pathology are quite simple: areas of reddened, dry skin appear near the injury. Due to constant scratching, the hair there is very rare, wounds are visible on the site of torn hair follicles.
It is also common, especially among dogs living in urban apartments. It develops when some irritating factors (physical or chemical origin) act on the skin for a rather long time. These may include: detergents and disinfectants, cosmetics, constant exposure to high temperatures. In the latter case, dermatitis occurs if the dog constantly prefers to sleep somewhere near central heating batteries. Because of this, this process often turns into a chronic, sluggish type.Click to view in a new window. Attention, the photo contains images of sick animals!
In severe cases, the skin begins to dry, crack, and the resulting damage is quickly seeded with pathogenic microflora (including purulent). Allergic contact dermatitis is even more common. As the name implies, it is caused by an allergen entering the dog's skin. In this case, bubbles quickly appear on it, swelling and severe itching are manifested. The contact type of inflammation is dangerous because it develops in many cases rather slowly, which greatly complicates the identification of the true cause of the disease. This leads to both a slowdown in treatment and a sharp increase in the cost of this process.
It develops in the case of only purulent, necrotic wounds, has an exudative character. The fact is that exudate from them, getting on the skin near the injury itself, irritates the epithelium, causes severe inflammation. Tissues in this place strongly swell, they are also exposed to pyogenic microflora, as a result of which the total area of the wound increases sharply (bacterial dermatitis). Such a process is fraught with the development of phlegmon and other variants of purulent spilled inflammation. Signs of near-dermatitis dermatitis are quite specific: the hair around the wound is first permanently glued and felted from secretions (wet type). Then it begins to fall out, exposing the reddened, swollen surface.
Very often found in the "company" with the type described above, especially with inept treatment. So, if “from the heart” anoint the wound edges with iodine, then it is easy to cause a skin inflammatory process, which, associated with inflammation in the wound itself, dramatically worsens the already far from ideal animal condition. However, the presence of a wound for the development of this pathology is not mandatory. So, if for some reason the animal was applied a bandage with some ointment or liniment, which did not change for a couple of weeks, then severe skin irritation would certainly develop. If you do nothing, then soon it will develop into dermatitis.
Well, everything is clear here. If your dog suffered a more or less extensive burn, then the inflammatory reaction will begin in 100% of cases. Often there is acute dermatitis, caused by constant licking of the affected area. Actually, in many cases it is not inflammation itself that is dangerous, but severe intoxication, which strikes the kidneys, liver, and brain tissues. Very often (almost always) the affected areas are seeded with pyogenic microflora, and massive suppuration exacerbates the serious condition of the animal. Important! Many for some reason forget that by “thermal” one can understand not only burn damage to the skin, but also a necrotic process during frostbite. In principle, the development of the disease is similar.
Flea dermatitis is especially common in dogs. Small, annoying parasites are dangerous not only as carriers of infections and helminths (cucumber tapeworm), but also as an independent cause of the disease. If many hundreds of fleas are "lodged" on a dog, because of their bites, the animal constantly itches, tearing and scratching the skin. In addition, flea saliva itself acts as an irritant, causing severe allergy attacks. As a result - reddened, swollen skin, which quickly becomes covered with combs and is seeded with pathogenic microflora. Finally, tick-borne dermatitis. The same demodicosis, for example, is always accompanied by a strong inflammatory process on the skin. In the end, when the smallest parasites gnaw passages in the living dermis, it cannot be otherwise.
Often this "living creature" causes weeping dermatitis in dogs with long ears (dachshunds, cocker spaniels). The so-called "hot spots" are formed, which quickly turn into areas with dead tissue, spreading a disgusting smell. Do not also forget that internal parasites, that is, helminths, can also have far from the most beneficial effect on the skin of an animal. However, this action cannot be discussed without considering the following form of dermatitis.
Perhaps the most common, poorly understood and unpleasant variety of inflammatory processes. Often this dermatitis is seasonal ("poplar time", for example). It is also widespread because even today in good dog food you can almost certainly find preservatives, dyes and even flavorings. Of course, this applies to a lesser degree to low-quality food, but often even products from quite "decent" manufacturers can boast of such additives. Do not forget about the unrealistic assortment of household chemicals, cosmetics, as well as other substances that the dog may encounter daily. The accumulation of all this in the body (sensitization, roughly speaking) sooner or later leads to a generalized allergic reaction.Click to view in a new window. Attention, the photo contains images of sick animals!
In principle, it is already dangerous even because of the anaphylactic shock (which develops suddenly and always unexpectedly), the animal can die at any time. In addition, scientists have been saying for years now that it is allergic reactions that are one of the main causes of autoimmune diseases. The most unpleasant of all this "company" is atopic dermatitis in dogs. If you do not go into subtleties, the so-called hereditary predisposition of certain breeds and individual animals to certain types of allergies caused by certain types of allergens is called. Vague, isn't it? And how veterinarians and breeders themselves suffer with them! It happens that there is no exact confidence in the cause, nor a treatment plan ... Currently, atopic type of dermatitis is considered by many veterinarians and biologists as an independent autoimmune pathology, which specialists have just begun to study in depth.Click to view in a new window. Attention, the photo contains images of sick animals!
There is another disease, which, apparently, can also have an allergenic nature. This is juvenile dermatitis, better known as "juvenile cellulitis." Most often manifested on the muzzle of young animals, which quickly becomes covered with vesicles with purulent contents and numerous scabies. The pathogenesis and cause of this pathology have not been exactly studied, so it remains to classify it as allergic or autoimmune. Seborrheic dermatitis can be classified in the same category. Currently, it is also considered a variety of genetically determined, autoimmune processes.
Infectious and fungal dermatitis
Perhaps one of the most diverse (after allergic) types of skin inflammation. In particular, the staphylococcal type is especially common, which every injured dog can get sick with. The fact is that opportunistic staphylococci are present on the skin of any animal and human being normal. If the dog is injured, and its immunity is weakened for some reason, a staphylococcal infection occurs, which may well be complicated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or something similar. Even worse, if fungi appeared in the company of bacteria. Fungal dermatitis is a poorly studied area. The cure of such pathologies sometimes drags on for many months, since it is not always possible to make an accurate diagnosis. An excellent example is the interdigital fungal dermatitis caused by the fungus Malassezia. This mushroom has long been considered by many scientists to be exclusively symbiotic ...Click to view in a new window. Attention, the photo contains images of sick animals!
Oddly enough, the way it is. Experts still can not establish the reason why the "white and fluffy" mushroom at one point begins to grow rapidly on the skin of the dog. Most likely, this is again a matter of weakened immunity. Another variety of the same type is malaysia dermatitis. It is also caused by ordinary yeast, which normally does not pose any danger. In general, "mushroom" inflammation is often disguised as an ear infection. The ear is warm, and the development of inflammation provides the necessary moisture - just a paradise for fungi!
Instead of a conclusion
So what can be said in the end? You yourself see how large and varied the list of all kinds of dermatitis is. Only an experienced veterinarian can often figure out the true reason. So if you notice something similar with your dog, take him to the clinic immediately!